Sorry for the decrease in updates lately. Australia is heading into end of financial year, and I have plenty of work coming in to keep me busy (not to mention preparing my tax return – blegh).

I’m still putting in a little time for the Workshop every night, and I should have something more interesting post in another couple of weeks. Once July 1 rolls around the worst of it will be over.

Interface Overhaul

Just a quick update today. After realising I spend nearly all my time in Daggerfall Scout with the interface collapsed, I started getting annoyed every time I had to expand the interface to pick another location to explore. If something annoys me, it’s probably going to really annoy someone else.

I’ve started re-working the user interface to provide a nicer experience, and make the location browser more entertaining in itself. I’ll post more about this once the new interface has progressed to a point where it’s screenshot-worthy.

Visual Diary: Climate Processing

The various regions/provinces in Daggerfall can take on a broad range of appearances. From the dry deserts of Alik’r, to the fecund swamps of Totambu, Daggerfall applies local flavour to almost every corner of the map. Different parts of the game world not only have distinct textures for most buildings, but varied plant life as well.

A primary goal for Daggerfall Scout is to faithfully display world maps as they would appear in the game. This is where climate processing comes in. When a city is correctly passed through the climate processer, it will take on the appearance of a desert, swamp, mountainous, or temperate location. Before I could do this, I had to find where Daggerfall itself stored information about a location’s climate, including native plant life.  Today’s Visual Diary steps through the process from research to implementation.


A Red Herring

The first place I looked was the map data in WOODS.WLD. Every pixel on the small map data has a corresponding large map chunk. One of the data values in the header for this chunk always corresponds to a ground texture. This seemed like a promising place to start.

After a bit of experimentation, I found the texture value only seemed valid some of the time. In many cases, it was flat out wrong. The city of Sentinel is a good example. The large map chunk for this world pixel reported the ground texture as 302 (temperate), not 2 (desert).

In frustration, I saved out the data into a visual format with intriguing results. Only the far eastern part of the world map, and some of the south, had any definition. The rest was a flat sea of “temperate”. This obviously wasn’t right, so I had to keep looking.

I’m guessing the data visualised to the left is either from an old version of the game world, or used in some as-yet not understood way.



The next place to look was CLIMATE.PAK, which also defines a single pixel that can be overlaid on the standard 1000×500 world map. This data has been known about for some time, but I’ve not looked deeply into how it is used.

The first step was to see what kinds of numbers we’re dealing with. Each climate pixel is a value from 223 to 232. To see this visually, I saved out a series of climate maps, each with a single climate highlighted where it’s used in the world. The screenshot to the left shows climate 226, which covers the mountainous regions of Wrothgaria, Dragontail, and interestingly the Isle of Balfiera. This seemed far more promising. Each climate zone neatly overlaid visually distinct areas of the world.

Once I knew which areas were affected by a particular climate, I fired up Daggerfall and started taking notes. After a few hours of testing, I found Daggerfall always uses the same texture base and plant archive for any given climate value. This allowed me to build a table of which climate pixels uses which texture series for buildings and ground scenery.

If you’ve used Daggerfall Explorer, then you have probably played with my climate texture swaps already. Knowing how to make the swap is one thing. Understanding where the game draws this data from is quite another. With this in place, I was armed to build climate processing into Daggerfall Scout.



New code doesn’t always go to plan. The trees and other ground scenery are processed correctly, but the ground and buildings textures aren’t quite right. Castle Sentinel is particularly attractive.

After quickly fixing a few bugs, things start looking better.


Working Climate Processing

Finally, Daggerfall Scout will build a map using the correct building textures and ground scenery for that climate. This has been confirmed by travelling through Daggerfall with Scout running alongside to many locations in each climate band.

The screenshots to the left show maps using swamp, desert, and mountain climates, with distinct scenery in place.

The next step will be to drop in skies. Once again I need to do some research to find out exactly which skies Daggerfall uses where. I’ll put up another visual diary once I’ve made more progress.

Visual Diary: Bright Ideas

Note: This diary is about research into the file formats. Screenshots are from Daggerfall running in DOSBox.

So I’ve been trying to find where Daggerfall stores extra information about flat billboard objects strewn throughout the world. Cows moo, cats meow, and lights… well they light things. For some time I just assumed this information was somewhere unknown in the file formats, and lately I’ve been going mad trying to find it. After not making any progress, I decided that sound effects and lighting properties must be hard-coded based on the texture used.

To test this out, I quickly modified my BSA readers to write back different textures for miscellaneous block flats in BLOCKS.BSA. In the following screenshots the only thing I have modified is the texture index.


Default Scene

This screenshot is of a General Store facade at night. Note the street light is illuminating the store nicely.

Before taking this screenshot, I have prepared a few modified BLOCKS.BSA files with different flats in place of the defaults. The purpose was to see how Daggerfall handled a simple texture index change. If the light kept flickering, then I knew lights were stored elsewhere and had to keep looking.


Lights Out!

After changing the texture index from a street light to a spell effect, the lighting effect is no longer applied. This is a good sign that I’m on the right track.


Testing A Theory

After putting the lights out, it seemed likely that Daggerfall was injecting a standard light source whenever the engine encountered a flat billboard using any texture from TEXTURE.210 (Lights). The billboard is also set to be emissive so that it appears to be self-lit.

To test this out, I replaced the street lights with braziers, and the lights returned. This was enough to prove how lights work, but what about cows and cats? Are billboard sound effects played based on texture alone?



For the next test, I found a nice dark spot with a cow standing near a building. This cow is mooing happily – and frequently!


Flame On

I then replaced Daisy with a brazier. Not surprisingly, the mooing stopped completely and the billboard started illuminating the building behind it.

The lesson learned here is never make assumptions when dealing with Daggerfall’s file formats. Just because it makes sense for something to work a certain way doesn’t mean Daggerfall does it like that. Hard-coded lights and sounds, based on texture index, is a good example of how Daggerfall manages not to conform.

The good news is this behaviour is very easy to reproduce in Daggerfall Scout, and I can stop looking for light and sound definitions in RMB blocks. I can start working on my own lighting model to reproduce those wonderfully atmospheric flickering lights.

I also have a suspicion that Daggerfall scales trees and other objects in a hard-coded manner as well. To test this, I’ll use the same texture modification technique on trees and find out. If the results are interesting, I’ll add to this visual diary.

Gardening For Beginners

After some tinkering in the file formats, I’ve managed to find the location for miscellaneous ground scenery such as trees, rocks, flowers, and so on. While superficially similar to the standard flats records, the scenery records can be region-specific, similar to ground plane textures. This allows the local clutter to take on a native appearance when properly parsed.

Scenery also appears to have different scaling values. A walk through Wayrest’s gardens in Daggerfall shows trees of variable heights. In DF Scout however, these all appear the same dimensions. I’ll keep digging for the correct scaling values and put up a full Visual Diary once completed. For now, here are a few screenshots of Daggerfall Scout with scenery clutter in place, but not yet properly scaled or region processed. This looks very out of place in the Sentinel screenshot below.

Daggerfall Landscaping Wayrest Landscaping 1 Wayrest Landscaping 2 Sentinel Landscaping